Episode 18. The Americans have been deceived.

Chapter 4. An not communists!

Episode 18. The America have been deceived.

Introduction: An is not a “super spies Communism”!- But “when his former colleagues first learned An’s story from rumors that began circulating in the 1980s, each invariably recalled a questionable incident that was suddenly explained by the news. “.

  1. Larry Berman.

“I began reading the personal icriptio in An’s books. “To Pham Xuan An—My friend, who served the cause of journalism and the cause of his country with honor and distinction—fondest regards,” wrote Neil Sheehan. “For my dearly beloved An, who understands that governments come and go but friends remain forever. You have been a grand teacher, but a gigantic friend who will always be part of my heart. With love, and a joy in finding you after all these years,” wrote Laura Palmer. “For Pham Xuan An—A true friend through troubled times we shared in wartime. My very fond regards,” wrote Gerald Hickey. “To Pham Xuan An, a courageous patriot and a great friend and teacher, with gratitude,” wrote . “To Pham Xuan An, the present finally catches up with the past! Memories to share and to cherish—but most of all a long friendship,” wrote Robert Shaplen. “For Pham Xuan An, my kid brother, who has helped me to understand Viem for so many years, with warm regards,” wrote Stanley Karnow.

I then decided to press my case one final time. I beseeched An to recognize that his story should be told by a historian like myself and not just by journalists in Viem, where the ceorship boards he ridiculed still operated. I played my trump card by saying it was only appropriate that a professor from California, a state of such fond personal memories, should write about his life as a strategic intelligence agent during the war, his career in journalism, his years in America, his friendships—the story of war, reconciliation, and peace. Knowing that he would never agree to reveal deeply held espionage secrets, I did not press this point.

Pham Xuan An looked me straight in the eyes and said, “OK,” telling me that he respected my previous books and he hoped young people in America could learn from his life about the war, patriotism, and his admiration for the American people.

…In late 2005 Pham Xuan An made two decisio that demotrated my status as his biographer. Ho Chi Minh Television began production of a ten-part documentary on his life.” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 5/12)

veritable oral histories

The second decision was more personal, with important ramificatio for my book. An asked if he could use my minicassette recorder to tape farewell messages to some of his old friends in the United States. Too weak to write or type, An wanted to say thank you and good-bye. He also asked me to tracribe three of these lengthy messages (which turned out to be veritable oral histories) and told me that I could use whatever he said as background, unless he had already told it to me during one of our sessio, in which case it was for attribution.” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 7/12)

Comment: Who can guarantee that: to be veritable oral historieshas not been controlled by the “Security Hanoi”?


“He promised to cooperate with only one caveat, reserving the right to say “That is not for your book because it may hurt that person’s children, but I tell it to you so you can see the rest of the picture, but please, never tell that story or give that name.” Through our last day together, An remained very concerned that something he might say would have adverse coequences not for him, but for others. In every itance I have honored his request.

He also told me that he did not want to read the manuscript until published, citing a Viemese phrase, “Van minh, vo nguoi.” ” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 6/12)


“Ironically, when the war was over and Viem no longer divided, there were some within Viem’s Security Police Office, the Cong An, who believed An’s ties with American and Viemese intelligence had been too close. Perhaps their hero had survived for so long only because he had been working for all sides, making him a possible triple agent. An only compounded matters by speaking fondly about his many friends in the CIA and CIO and so critically about his lost dreams for the revolution.

An’s value came not just in the information he obtained, but in the interpretation of that information. ” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 9/12)


                “The aftermath of the war brought extreme loneliness for An. Cut off from his American friends and unable to work as a journalist, An dutifully put on his uniform and attended monthly party cell meetings. “The group is getting smaller and smaller as my friends die, but I still go regularly once a month and confess things like ‘this we I had a visit from Professor Larry Berman, and we spoke about the race for the Red House and things like that,’” said An with a smile.” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 10/12)

                Comment: Who can guarantee that: “this we I had a visit from Professor Larry Berman” has not been controlled by the “Security Hanoi”? ( = electronic listening devices.)

                Security knows these things.

“When I asked An if anyone really cared that he had confessed our meetings, he responded, “Look, everything I confess they know already because security knows these things. They have their ways. The confessing is a test to see if you are being truthful and loyal, so it is better to tell them what they already know. Besides, everyone knows I am frank, and they know how I feel about all this anyway. .” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 10/12)

`               I am too old.

                “I am too old to change and they are too scared to change, but each year it gets better. Maybe in another fifty years it will be OK.” (Perfect Spy, Prologue, Page 10/12)

  1. Nick Turner.

“New Zeder Nick Turner, who replaced Smark as Reuters bureau chief in May 1962, later wrote: “Another advantage I had was my Viemese assistant, Pham Xuan An. We all relied heavily on our Viemese assistants, as tralators and as interpreters of Viemese politics and the developing military struggle. My man was regarded as the best in Saigon, very well informed and shrewd. He was my intelligence officer. It later turned out he was also an intelligence officer for the Viet Cong, with the rank of colonel. Working for Reuters gave him a perfect cover to move around and pick up information.”6(Perfect Spy, Chapter 4, Page 4/27)        

  1. Jim Reckner.

Out in his side yard, An unlocked his file cabinets and removed a stack of these tattered documents. “Today they are all available at Texas Tech’s Viem Center,” said An, laughing. “When I am dead, my wife will throw it all away. We are the only ones who care.” The director of the Viem Center, Jim Reckner, is a mutual friend and the man who introduced us years earlier. Jim and Khanh Le, another friend who works at the center, have been visitors to An’s home, and I know they had suggested An coider traferring his papers to Texas Tech’s Viem Archive so that the materials could be preserved for the future.

None of the documents An showed me that day or any day can be coidered the crown jewel of intelligence or crucial military secrets, but Viem Communists at the time had little understanding of the tactics that were being developed for a new type of “special war.” …” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 4, Page 11/27)     

  1. McCulloch and Jon Larsen.

“Still, working for Time provided distinct advantages. “I now see An’s role was to listen, not plant stories,” McCulloch told me. “Therefore, the bureau office provided a perfect listening post for his other job because the political and military data was discussed openly.”29 Robert Sam Aon wryly observed that “what better cover was there than for him to collect all this information while working for a news organization whose enthusiasm for the war made it MACV’s and the Embassy’s favorite repository for leaks. It was brilliant, and the most delicious irony was that all the while the empire of Henry Luce, the great Asian anti-Communist, had been paying his salary.”30

Jon Larsen was Time’s bureau chief from late 1970 to 1971, having replaced Marsh Clark. He recalled for me that “An was our correspondent, our tralator, our all purpose go-to guy. You could always get a good briefing from him. He was our information broker. He did not sit around the office; in fact, it was best to make an appointment, and he’d always show up, sit, and talk with you. I never did suspect. I knew him to be an ardent nationalist.”31 (Perfect Spy, Chapter 5, Page 7/25)               

  1. Zalin Grant.

                “I never got any farther on this with An, who I knew felt stung by former Time colleague Zalin Grant’s 2005 letter to the New Yorker, which charged, “while spying for the North Viemese, An traformed Time’s correspondents into an inadvertent network of spies for Hanoi. Time had high-level sources who often provided classified information on the condition that it would be kept secret and used only as background. The content of these confidential briefings was circulated internally in the wely ‘Time memo,’ which was coidered so seitive that copies were numbered and returned after a reading by the editors. The memo contained much useless gossip, but also solid-gold iider reports from the White House, the State Department, and the Pentagon. The memo was also circulated to Time bureaus around the world, which were also to take equal precautio; An, as a Time reporter, had access to it. I often saw him taking notes from the Saigon bureau chief’s confidential reports. These would have included briefings by generals William Westmoreland and Creighton Abrams and ambassadors Henry Cabot Lodge and Ellsworth Bunker, which often covered operatio and strategy scheduled for wes in the future. Then An would suddenly disappear without a word, presumably to brief his comrades in the tunnels of Cu Chi. ” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 5, Page 14/25)           

  1. David Halberstam

                “An anticipated that his American friends would assist him because they would remember him as a colleague, not as the enemy of their country or as someone who betrayed their trust. “They knew me as someone who always helped them and I was not their enemy. I fought for my country, not agait the America,” said An in a way intended to deflect recall that he had been a master spy for the other side. “If ever there was a man caught between two worlds, it was An. It is very hard for anyone who did not serve in Viem in those years to understand the complexity,” said David Halberstam.27(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 12/23)       

  1. The New York Times Magazine.

                “Perhaps the largest obstacle for the success of the plan was fallout from publication of Morley Safer’s Flashbacks: On Returning to Viem.28 The book was drawing wide attention primarily because of a chapter that featured a remarkably candid discussion with An. The New York Times Magazine for Sunday, March 11, 1990, included an excerpt from the book, titled “Spying for Hanoi,” with the attention-getting subtitle: “For 10 years, Pham Xuan An Was a Valued Reporter for Time Magazine in Saigon. What His Editors Didn’t Know Was That All Along He Was ‘Spying For Hanoi.’”” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 13/23) 

  1. Bob Aon.

“A year earlier, in War News, Bob Aon had published his account of An’s role in securing his release from captivity. Now living in Bangkok, Aon received a copy of Safer’s unedited manuscript, sent to him by a fellow journalist in New York who knew both An and Aon.

As Aon read the attributio to An, he felt his friend was now in great jeopardy. Aon was inceed by Safer’s admission that he took no notes when speaking with An. Safer, accompanied by his assistant and with An’s help, had polished off a complete bottle of White Horse whiskey during their conversation.29 Aon was worried that the man who had saved his life was going to suffer on account of the interview. Aon applied for an expedited visa and was on the next available flight from Bangkok to Ho Chi Minh City for a meeting with An.

An told me that he thought the conversation with Safer was off the record; that is, they were two friends catching up and drinking a bottle of whiskey. “I never thought he would publish our conversation. I was just so happy to have colleagues to speak with again,” said An. Aon and An went through each line of the manuscript dealing with the recotructed conversation, editing things down to a level where An hoped his son’s chances for a visa would not be endangered. He did not care about what might happen to him and “out of respect for my profession” An decided not to contest Safer’s right to publish the interview. “I would be a ceor and I could not do that, but I could try to show what I thought I said for the record,” said An..” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 13/23)

  1. 9. Publication by Random House.

                “Safer’s book was scheduled for publication by Random House, where Aon had recently published Best Intentio: The Education and Killing of Edmund Perry. Aon called his publisher. “I beseeched them via a phone call or three or eight and a detailed exegesis of Morley’s reporting methods,” says Aon. He told them the story of his recent visit with An and asked that Random House and Safer edit the attributio before publication, which they agreed to do.” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 14/23)      

  1. 10. Morley Safer.

                “The narrative that finally appeared in print was coiderably toned down from the original, but still vintage frankness from An. In respoe to Safer’s question concerning who he worked for: “‘The truth? Which truth? One truth is that for 10 years I was a staff correspondent for Time magazine and before that Reuters. The other truth is that I joined the movement in 1944 and in one way or another have been part of it ever since. Two truths…both truths are true.’” In respoe to Safer’s question about An’s activities as a spy: “‘The real work started in 1960, when I was working for Reuters. I held the rank of regimental commander…. During the years with Time I was made a colonel…. I had access to all the [South] Viemese bases and their commanders. My superiors wanted to know the strengths of various units. They wanted estimates of the capabilities of commanders—who was corrupt and who was corruptible.’”

The questio and awers reached the seitive stage when Safer asked why the revolution had failed. “‘There were many reaso. So many mistakes were made out of sheer ignorance. Like every revolution, we called it a people’s revolution, but of course the people were the first to suffer…. as long as the people sleep in the street, the revolution was lost. It is not that the leaders are cruel men, but the effect of paternalism and discredited economic theory is the same.’”

“‘Aren’t you worried about talking so bluntly? Isn’t it dangerous?’” asked Safer. An’s respoe was the same in 1990 as it would be in 2006: “‘Everyone knows how I feel. I make no secret of it. I never have…. I’m too old to change. I’m too old to shut up.’”” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 14/23)

  1. 11. Douglas Pike.

                “With the Safer-An interview now public, all An could do was hope that those in authority would take no punitive action agait him, although one immediate result reported by his friend Douglas Pike was that surveillance had increased because authorities believed An had “revealed State secrets in the Safer interview.”31(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 15/23)

  1. 12. Frank

“In a “Dear friends” letter dated September 4, 1990, McCulloch wrote “My apologies for not personalizing this letter, but time is of the essence, and this seemed the most efficient way to go. Most of you, I think, know Pham Xuan An personally, and those who don’t will remember him as a correspondent in the Saigon bureau of Time-Life and the subject of the poignant chapter in Morley Safer’s book that ran as an excerpt in a recent New York Times Sunday magazine. The generatio changeth, and now An’s oldest son, Hoang, wants very much to come to the United States and study journalism—not as a mea of getting out of Viem but, in his own words, to return there with his new skills ‘to be in the service of my people.’”” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 16/23)

                Memory of Robert Shaplen, who had died in May of 1988

“Aon suggested that someone approach the New Yorker and get a donation in the memory of Robert Shaplen, who had died in May of 1988, but he worried that without corporate spoorship, it was going to be a tough road with individual donors. He put together a list of those who should be tapped—“David Greenway, Dick Clurman, Murray Gart, and then the correspondents like Bill Stewart, the Hong Kong bureau chief whom An had also written directly for help; Stan Cloud who recently saw An; Laura Palmer, who was ‘devoted to An.’ Jim Willwerth in the LA bureau, Burt Pines of Heritage Foundation, Bill Marmon, Pippa Marsh, Jon Larsen, Jim Wilde, John Sarr, former Life in Saigon now with People, Dick Swaon and Germaine Greer [sic] of Germaine’s…she’s wildly anti-communist, so be prepared for a blast…. Beverly Deepe.”” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 17/23)

  1. 13. Alison Krupnick.

“There were also problems communicating with An; surveillance had increased since the Safer interviews, and he had no access to a secure telephone or fax. “Till now, I’ve either gone into Saigon myself or pigeoned letters in with visiting correspondents,” Aon explained to McCulloch, “Pigeo are also a problem, since so damn few correspondents are going in. Fortunately I’ve recruited at least one message carrier. That’s Alison Krupnick of the U.S. State Department’s Orderly Departure Program. A fluent Viemese speaker, Alison visits Saigon regularly, and is making her next trip on 3 September. If you’ve got anything for An between now and then, please fax it to me as soon as possible. I’m hoping that Alison can function as a regular pigeon, but that hasn’t been nailed down yet.”

                Alison Krupnick spent ten years as a Foreign Service officer and worked for ODP from December 1988 until July 1992”…… …As a naïve, young American who had never experienced war first-hand, I could only imagine what I might have done had my principles or the security of my family been threatened. Pham Xuan An’s story, like the stories of many people I met, was a reminder to me that things are not always black and white.”40(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 17/23)

  1. 14. Judith Ladiky.

                “By now Aon was working closely with Judith Ladiky, who had outlined in great detail the procedures for getting An Pham’s visa and who was willing to handle all of the paperwork between Hanoi and the United States State Department—once a guarantor had been identified.41

Ladiky’s work is legendary in Viem. She has helped the U.S. Committee for Scientific Cooperation build a thriving clinical infrastructure and establish joint research and primary care programs in pediatrics, corneal surgery, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS and cancer treatment. As part of her committee’s mission to promote Viemese students’ attendance at American universities, Ladiky’s Viem Educational Exchange Program (VEEP) administered the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) exam twice a year in Viem. “My son would not have made it without Judith Ladiky’s help,” An told me.” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 18/23)

  1. 15. CIA director William Colby.

“One of Ladiky’s most important recommendatio was that a letter be written by someone of stature to Henry Dearman, dean of the graduate school, asking that the guarantor be waived so that the I-20 immigration form could be sent and the visa process could get under way. Aon suggested a full court press be put on UNC, with name-dropping, including using the name of An’s friend, CIA director William Colby, “since, clearly, they’re never going to check.”.” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 18/23)

  1. 16. Karsten Prager và Larry Woodruff.

“Karsten Prager, who almost a decade earlier wrote McCulloch that “I always liked An but never quite trusted him,” became the new communicatio link between Aon and An Pham in Frank’s absence. Aon had already spoken with Vice Coul Larry Woodruff at the U.S. Embassy in Bangkok. “U.S. knows of An’s wartime background and sees no special trouble for Hoang An from our end. Woodruff says that Hoang An should have no trouble getting U.S. entry visa, and has cabled Washington, setting the wheels in motion for this purpose.”43(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 19/23)

  1. 17. Deceive many others.

“By Thanksgiving 1990 An Pham’s security clearance was granted and the F-1 student visa issued. Pham Xuan An’s friends and former colleagues raised enough funds to cover the cost of An Pham’s two years at UNC. An cashed his Time peion and contributed $3,000 to the effort. Individual contributio by journalists were made by Neil Sheehan, Stanley Karnow, Jon Larsen, Johnny Apple, Morley Safer, John Griffin, Bill Plante, Don Moser, Stan Cloud, Dean Brelis, Lara Palmer, Dick Swaon, Jason Shaplen, Dick Clurman, plus corporate matching by Time, Inc. Most colleagues shared the sentiments of Jack Laurence, who wrote, “I am pleased to join the fund-raising drive…. am grateful to you for letting me know there was a cause in need.”44(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 19/23)

  1. 18. President .

“During President ’s November 2006 visit to Viem, An Pham served as the tralator for conversatio between President Bush and President Nguyen Minh Triet. An Pham told me, “I wish my dad were here to see these moments. My voice cracked at some point during my interpretation for the presidents, trying to hold back my tears.”” (Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 20/23)

  1. 19. Captain Mark Clodfelter.

(Perfect Spy, Chapter 7, Page 20/23)

  1. PFC Michael Holmes.

                “Then I recalled the day I visited An with two friends. We had just returned from Khe Sanh, where thirty-five years earlier, PFC Michael Holmes, a member of the 9th Marines, “the walking dead,” sustained life-threatening wounds. …

                …Major General Tran Ba Di had been commanding general of the 9th ARVN Division when Baker was there in 1968–1969. After the war, Di spent seventeen years and five days in Communist priso. Baker had been trying to get a lead on Di’s whereabouts, but kept coming up empty until he met the still well-connected An, who told Baker where to find Di in the United States. Di was now working in Disneyland.

                …As we left An’s home, Michael remarked, “When I came in 1968, no one ever told me why I was here. I did what I was ordered and never thought to know the enemy and why they were fighting back. Well, I just met the enemy and after thirty-five years finally understand.” Baker remarked that “the general” was so modest and unassuming, yet so in control of the “briefing.” It was vintage An.” (Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 1/10)

  1. The Independent and Bruce Palling.

                “I suppose each of us will remember An differently. In looking over the obituaries and eulogies written by former colleagues, I was especially taken by three that went well beyond the standard biography. Writing in the Independent, Bruce Palling observed that “tricky while it is to attempt to quantify the impact of secret intelligence on the outcome of a prolonged war, Pham Xuan An deserves to be coidered one of the greatest spies of the 20th century.”4 Palling cited An’s crucial role in the two turning points of the war—Ap Bac in 1963 and the Tet Offeive in 1968.”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 5/10)

  1. The Boston Globe and David Greenway.

In the Boston Globe, David Greenway, who regularly brought An songbirds from Bangkok, asked: “Was An’s friendship all a lie and a betrayal? There were so many lies and so much betrayal, so much conflicted loyalty in our ill-fated adventure in Viem that any see of having been wronged has long since faded.”5(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 5/10)

  1. Time and former bureau chief Stanley Cloud.

                And in Time, former bureau chief Stanley Cloud wrote, “I felt I knew him well, but I was wrong.” Cloud viewed An as a nationalist who loved his country more than any ideology. “During the war a colleague of ours said to me, ‘I think Pham Xuan An is the perfect example of the very best in Viemese society.’ I felt that way, too. I still do.”6(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 5/10)

  1. 23. Jolynne D’Ornano.

                I am fairly certain that An’s friends see him the way Jolynne D’Ornano did: “I am in great admiration how you managed your multiple lives so successfully and, I believe, very sincerely,” she wrote in a letter near the end of An’s life. “Your family aside, you had two loyalties—your country and your love for the U.S. and those America you befriended. I am unable to see any conflict in what you did. You can love another country for what it represents and oppose its policies especially when they are devastating your country and its people. It is not in your nature to sit by, do nothing and let nature and its events take their course. The role you played in shaping history took not only great conviction but great courage and I admire you for it.”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 5/10)

  1. Ross Johon.

                “Yet, there is still so much anger from those who see An as respoible for the deaths of not just hundreds but thousands of America. “He cannot have done what he did without costing American lives,” said his former dorm mate former California state senator Ross Johon. “Anyone who says he didn’t is naive.”13(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. 25. Wendy Larsen.

                It’s hard to disagree with the conclusion that many died because of the success of this master spy, but I think this anger obscures the fact that An was defending his country. Wendy Larsen, who spent time with An while her husband, Jon, was Time’s bureau chief, wrote me to say, “I like to think that were the situation reversed, I might have showed one hundredth of the courage An did for his country.” ”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. 26. Jul Owings, the daughter of Mills Brandes.

“After learning of An’s death, Jul Owings, the daughter of Mills Brandes, wrote me about the “passing of one of my family’s best friends. It does not surprise me that Mr. An’s first loyalty was to his country. Wouldn’t we do the same?”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. 27. Ambassador Raymond F. Burghardt: “personally say good-bye

                An lived long enough to see a new chapter open between the United States and Viem. Indeed, he became part of the broader reconciliation process between former enemies, and here I believe An’s life came full circle. When Raymond F. Burghardt’s tenure as ambassador came to an end, An was invited to a reception to welcome the new diplomatic mission and to bid farewell to the departing ambassador. A few days prior to the event, An was bitten by his pet falcon and was unable to attend; An Pham represented the family.

When the ambassador learned that An was home, he asked to be driven there to personally say good-bye. “I did not want to leave Viem without saying good-bye to An,” Ambassador Burghardt told me. “His story, his life are just so incredible, but even more than that he is an important symbol of the new friendship between our two countries. And his son is just such a remarkable man as well.” ”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

                Comment:          Ambassador Burghardt: “His story, his life are just so incredible, but …

  1. United States Coul General Emi Lynn Yamauchi .

                Several wes later United States Coul General Emi Lynn Yamauchi spent Tet, the traditional Viemese New Year, at the home of the An family. “We wanted her, as our friend, to be with a typical Viemese family at this time of year,” said An Pham. “It is important that we understand each other’s cultures and traditio.”” (Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. The Viem Project, Harvard University.

                “Several wreaths at An’s funeral spoke volumes about his role in the process of reconciliation: “To our beloved teacher Pham Xuan An, we will always cherish your wisdom and friendship,” from the Viem Project, Harvard University; ”(Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. 30. The Fulbright Economics Teaching Program.

                “With our deepest gratitude for your couel and encouragement,” from the Fulbright Economics Teaching Program; and, of course, from a dear friend: “In admiration and loving memory of Phan Xuan An,” from Neil, Susan, Catherine, and Maria Sheehan.” (Perfect Spy, Epilogue, Page 8/10)

  1. 31. Dan Southerland.

                “Dan Southerland recotructed April 1975, when he and An helped get Dr. Tuyen out of the country and he brought a careful eye to the manuscript.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. 32. NBC và Ron Steinman.

                “Ron Steinman, NBC bureau chief in Saigon, read the entire manuscript and provided valuable iights” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. Ambassador Bui Diem and Ambassador Nguyen Xuan Phong.

“Ambassador Bui Diem advised me on Saigon politics and his interactio with An. Ambassador Nguyen Xuan Phong spent hours speaking with me about An and the concept of brother-enemies. Nguyen Thai provided invaluable iights about his relatiohip with An and the Ngo family.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. 34. An’s former colleagues and/or personal friends.

                “I benefited from exchanges with several of An’s former colleagues and/or personal friends: David Lamb, George McArthur, Horst Faas, Eva Kim, Jolynne D’Ornano, Bernard Kalb, Neil Sheehan, David Halberstam, David Burnett, Judith Ladiky, Gerald Hickey, Nick Turner, Ted Thai, Rufus Phillips, Jon Larsen, Stanley Cloud, David DeVoss, Alison Krupnick, and Wendy Larsen.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. 35. Merle Pribbenow.

                “I have three special intellectual debts for the final ledger. Merle Pribbenow, a former language officer, operatio officer, and staff officer for the CIA from 1968 to 1995 regularly provided me with English tralatio of almost anything published in Viemese about An and his espionage network.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. 36. Nguyen Lien Hang and Edward Miller.

                “Lien-Hang T. Nguyen at the University of Kentucky tralated several articles and read the entire manuscript and page proofs. Edward Miller at Dartmouth read several early drafts, secured a copy of David Butler’s exteive interviews with Dr. Tuyen from the Butler Papers at Dartmouth, and provided me with the tracript of his own interview with An. Hang and Ed supported me during moments of doubt and confusion. I asked my junior colleagues to be tough and they spared nothing. Ed and Hang represent the very best in the next generation for Viemese studies.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 1/3)

  1. 37. James Reckner, Steve Maxner and Le Khanh.

                “It is a pleasure to acknowledge the support and friendship of James Reckner, Steve Maxner, and Khanh Le at Texas Tech University’s Viem Center. Thanks to Jim, I was able to meet An; Khanh introduced me to Viem; Steve provided access to primary source materials and images. As with my previous books, by deed of gift all my research materials will be deposited in the Viem Archive.

Several colleagues and friends provided invaluable advice. Kathy Olmsted, Nguyen Ky Phong, Fred Brown; Nguyen Manh Hung, Andy Birtle, David Seerman, Bill Laurie, Mark Clodfelter, David Biggs, John Prados, Anhthu Lu, and Sedgwick Tourison helped whenever I asked. Stephen Routh, Myrna Rothstein, and H. M. Baker read the entire manuscript and offered many helpful suggestio.” (Perfect Spy, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, Page 2/3)

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